Information on being overweight and obese in adults

Definition and facts

What are overweight and obesity?

The terms “overweight” and “obesity” refer to a body weight that is greater than what is considered normal or healthy for a certain height. Being overweight is usually due to extra body fat. However, being overweight can also occur due to excess muscle, bone, or water. People with obesity generally have too much body fat.

The body mass index (BMI) () is a way to know if a person has a healthy, overweight or obese weight. BMI is a measure based on weight in relation to height. The higher the BMI, the greater the risk of developing health problems from being overweight and obese .

Reaching and maintaining a healthy weight can be a long-term challenge if a person is overweight or obese. Maintaining a healthy weight, or at least not gaining more weight if you are already overweight, can help lower your chance of developing certain health problems.

More than 1 in 3 adults in the United States are considered obese.

How common are overweight and obesity?

According to a national survey in the United States 1,2,3

  • more than 1 in 3 adults were classified as overweight
  • more than 1 in 3 adults were classified as obese
  • more than 2 in 3 adults were classified as overweight or obese

For more statistical data on overweight and obesity in the United States, see the NIDDK document Overweight & Obesity Statistics .

Who is more likely to be overweight?

Men are more likely to be overweight than women. 3

Who is more likely to be obese?

According to a national survey in the United States, some groups are more likely to be obese. two

  • Among black adults, 48 ​​out of 100 were classified as obese.
  • Among Hispanic adults, 42 out of 100 were classified as obese.
  • Among white adults, 36 out of 100 were classified as obese.

Women are more likely to be obese than men. two

Many factors play a role in determining who is most likely to be obese, and these factors can affect people differently.

Why do people gain weight?

Many factors can cause weight gain and affect how much weight the body stores. When a person consumes more calories from food or drink than they use in physical activity and in daily life, such as sitting or sleeping, the body stores the extra calories. Over time, if you continue to consume more calories than you use, you will likely gain weight. Excessive weight gain can lead to being overweight or obese.

Who Should Lose Weight?

Medical experts recommend that people who are obese lose weight.

Most people who are overweight and have one or more factors that increase their chance of heart disease should lose weight. These factors include:

  • diabetes
  • prediabetes
  • high blood pressure
  • dyslipidemia: high levels of LDL cholesterol, low levels of HDL cholesterol, or high levels of triglycerides
  • large waist size: for men, over 40 inches; for women, over 35 inches

Bibliography

[1] Jensen MD, Ryan DH, Apovian CM, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults. Circulation. 2014;129:S102–S138.

[2] Flegal KM, Kruszon-Moran D, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Trends in obesity among adults in the United States, 2005 to 2014. JAMA. 2016;315(21):2284–2291.

[3] Fryar CD, Carroll MD, Ogden CL. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Health E-Stats. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults aged 20 and over: United States, 1960–1962 through 2013–2014. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/obesity_adult_13_14/obesity_adult_13_14.pdf (PDF, 342 KB). Published July 2016. Accessed October 25, 2017.

Factors that affect

What factors affect weight and health?

Many factors can affect weight and lead to being overweight or obese . Some of these factors can make it difficult to lose weight or make it difficult to regain weight that has been lost.

Family history and genes

Overweight and obesity tend to run in families, suggesting that genes may play a role. The chance of being overweight is higher if one or both parents are overweight or obese. Genes can affect the amount of fat a person accumulates in the body and the part of the body where the extra fat accumulates.

Race or ethnic origin

Some groups that include racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to be obese. Rates of obesity in adults in the United States are highest among African Americans, followed by Hispanics / Latinos and then Caucasians. Those rates apply to men and women. 4 Although Asian American men and women have the lowest rates of obesity, 4 they may still be at risk for obesity-associated diseases if they accumulate a lot of unhealthy fat in the abdomen, even when their body mass index (BMI) is lower. 5

Age

Many people gain weight as they age. Adults with a normal BMI often begin to gain weight during early adulthood and continue to gain weight until they are between 60 and 65 years of age. Also, children who are obese are more likely to remain obese as adults.

Sex

In the United States, obesity is more common in black or Hispanic women than in black or Hispanic men. 4 A person’s gender can also affect where fat accumulates on the body. Women tend to accumulate fat in the hips and buttocks. Men generally accumulate fat in the abdomen or stomach. Excess fat, especially around the abdomen, can put people at risk for health problems even at normal weight.

Eating and physical activity habits

A person’s eating and physical activity habits can make them more likely to be overweight and obese if they:

  • eat lots of foods and drinks that are high in calories, sugar, and fat
  • drink lots of beverages high in added sugar
  • you spend a lot of time sitting or lying down and the amount of physical activity you do is limited

Place where a person lives, works, recreates and practices their religion

Where a person lives, works, plays, and practices their religion can affect their eating and physical activity habits, and their access to healthy food and places where they can be physically active.

For example, living in an area that has a large number of supermarkets can increase access to better quality, lower calorie food. Living in a neighborhood with lots of green spaces and areas for safe physical activity can encourage a person to be more physically active.

Where you work and practice your religion can also make it easier for a person to eat unhealthy and high-calorie foods. Vending machines, coffee shops, or special events at your workplace or where you practice your religion may not offer healthy, lower-calorie options. Whenever possible, choose the healthiest options and limit treats and sweets to a small slice of cake or pie.

Family and cultural habits

Family eating and lifestyle habits can affect weight and health. Some families may consume foods and beverages that are high in fat, salt, and added sugars or eat large amounts of unhealthy foods at family gatherings. Some families may also be inactive for a long time watching television, on the computer, or using a mobile device instead of doing some physical activity.

Social, ethnic, or religious group culture can also affect weight and health due to shared eating and lifestyle habits. In some cultures, foods and beverages high in fat, salt, and added sugar are consumed. Some common food preparation methods, like deep frying, can result in high calorie intake. Over time, regular consumption of foods high in calories, fat, and sugar can lead to weight gain.

Not getting enough sleep

People who don’t get enough sleep can consume more calories and eat more snacks. 6 Experts recommend that adults ages 18 to 64 sleep 7 to 9 hours a day, and those over 65 sleep 7 to 8 hours a day. 7

Other factors

Other factors that can cause weight gain include:

What makes it difficult for some people to lose weight?

Many factors can make it difficult to lose weight, including:

  • the genes
  • what and how much does a person eat
  • not getting regular physical activity or being inactive
  • taking certain medications
  • have certain medical conditions
  • difficulty managing stress

Bibliography

[4] Flegal KM, Kruszon-Moran D, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Trends in obesity among adults in the United States, 2005 to 2014. JAMA. 2016;315(21):2284–2291.

[5] Liu X, Chen Y, Boucher NL, Rothberg AE. Prevalence and change of central obesity among US Asian adults: NHANES 2011–2014. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):678.

[6] St-Onge MP. Sleep-obesity relation: underlying mechanisms and consequences for treatment. Obesity Reviews. 2017;18(suppl 1):34–39.

[7] Hirshkowitz M, Whiton K, Albert SA, et al. National Sleep Foundation’s updated sleep duration recommendations: final report. Sleep Health. 2015;1(4):233–243.

Am I at a healthy weight?

How do I know if I am at a healthy weight?

Knowing your body mass index (BMI) measurement, waist size, and waist-to-hip ratio helps you determine if you are at a healthy weight.

Body mass index

The body mass index (BMI) is the most commonly used formula to estimate and detect overweight and obesity in adults. BMI is a measurement based on a person’s weight in relation to their height. Calculate your body mass index .

BMI can indicate whether a person is of normal or healthy weight, overweight, or obese. The higher the BMI, the higher the risk of developing health problems such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

  • Normal or healthy weight . A person with a BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 is in the normal or healthy range.
  • Overweight . A person with a BMI of 25 to 29.9 is classified as overweight.
  • Obesity . A person with a BMI of 30 to 39.9 is classified as obese.
  • Extreme obesity . A person with a BMI of 40 or more is classified as extremely obese.

Because BMI does not measure the specific amount of body fat, a very muscular person, such as a bodybuilder, can have a high BMI without having a lot of body fat. Also, some groups that tend to have a lower BMI, such as Asian women and men or older adults may have large amounts of body fat, even if they are not overweight.

Waist size

Another important measurement is your waist size. Having too much fat around the waist can increase the likelihood of developing health problems even more than having fat elsewhere on the body. Women with a waist size over 35 inches and men with a waist size over 40 inches are more likely to develop obesity-related diseases.

Women with a waist size greater than 35 inches are more likely to develop obesity-related diseases.

Does body shape matter?

Doctors are concerned not only with how much body fat a person has, but also where the fat is located on the body. Women tend to accumulate fat in the hips and buttocks, giving them a “pear” shaped body. Men generally accumulate fat in the abdomen, giving them rather an “apple” shaped body. Of course, some men have pear-shaped bodies and some women have apple-shaped bodies.

Excess fat, especially in the abdomen, can put people at risk for developing certain health problems, even if they are of normal weight. People who have apple-shaped bodies may be more likely to develop type 2 diabetes, heart disease, or certain types of cancer than people who share the same weight but have pear-shaped bodies.

When should you seek help from a doctor?

A person should seek help from a doctor if they are gaining weight rapidly, have a large waist size, or a BMI of 30 or more. You should also seek help from a doctor if you are overweight or obese and have:

  • family history of certain diseases, such as type 2 diabetes or heart disease
  • health problems such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, or metabolic syndrome

Health risks

Being overweight and obese can increase the risk of developing certain health problems and can be linked to some emotional and social problems.

What are some health risks of being overweight and obese?

Type 2 diabetes

The type 2 diabetes is a disease that occurs when the concentration of blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. About 8 out of 10 people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese. 8 Over time, a high level of glucose in the blood causes problems such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease , eye problems , nerve damage, and other health problems.

If a person is at risk of developing type 2 diabetes, losing 5 to 7 percent of body weight and getting regular physical activity can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes.

High blood pressure

High blood pressure, also called hypertension, is a medical condition in which blood flows through blood vessels with more force than normal. High blood pressure can strain the heart, damage blood vessels, and increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, and death.

Being overweight and obese can increase your risk of developing certain health problems, such as high blood pressure.

Heart disease

Heart disease is a term used to describe various problems that can affect the heart. If a person has heart disease, they may have a heart attack, heart failure, sudden cardiac death, angina, or an abnormal heart rhythm. High blood pressure, abnormal levels of fat and glucose in the blood can increase the risk of developing heart disease. Fats in the blood, also called blood lipids, include HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides.

Losing 5 to 10 percent of your weight can reduce your risk factors for developing heart disease. If a person weighs 200 pounds, this means losing just 10 pounds. Losing weight can improve blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood flow.

Stroke

A stroke is a medical condition in which the blood supply to the brain is suddenly cut off, caused by a blockage or rupture of a blood vessel in the brain or neck. A stroke can damage brain tissue and prevent a person from being able to speak or move parts of their body. High blood pressure is the leading cause of strokes.

Sleep apnea

Sleep apnea is a common disorder in which a person does not breathe regularly while sleeping or may stop breathing completely for short periods of time. When sleep apnea is not treated, it can increase the risk of developing other health problems, such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

Metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome is a group of medical conditions that puts a person at risk for developing heart disease, diabetes, and stroke. These conditions are:

  • high blood pressure
  • high blood glucose levels
  • high levels of triglycerides in the blood
  • low levels of HDL cholesterol (the “good” cholesterol) in the blood
  • excess fat around the waist

Fatty liver disease

Fatty liver diseases are medical conditions in which fat builds up in the liver. Fatty liver diseases include nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) . Fatty liver disease can lead to severe liver damage, cirrhosis, or even liver failure.

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is a common and long-lasting health problem that causes pain, swelling, and decreased movement in the joints. Being overweight or obese can increase your risk of developing osteoarthritis because weight puts extra pressure on your joints and cartilage.

Gallbladder diseases

Being overweight and obese can increase the risk of developing gallbladder diseases, such as gallstones and cholecystitis. Imbalances in the substances that make up bile cause gallstones. Gallstones can form if the bile contains too much cholesterol.

Some cancers

The cancer is a collection of related diseases. In all types of cancer, some of the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and spread to nearby tissues. Being overweight and obese can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer .

Renal disease

Kidney disease means that the kidneys are damaged and cannot filter the blood as they should. Obesity increases the risk of developing diabetes and high blood pressure, the most common causes of kidney disease. Even if a person does not have diabetes or high blood pressure, obesity by itself can promote kidney disease and accelerate its progress.

Problems during pregnancy

Being overweight and obese increase the risk of developing certain health problems that can occur during pregnancy. Pregnant women who are overweight or obese may be more likely to:

  • develop gestational diabetes
  • having pre-eclampsia, which is high blood pressure during pregnancy that can cause serious health problems for mother and baby if left untreated
  • needing a cesarean section , and as a result, taking longer to recover after delivery

What emotional and social problems are linked to being overweight and obese?

Being overweight and obese are associated with certain mental health problems, such as depression . People who are overweight or obese can also be subjected to prejudice and stigma from other people, including from healthcare providers. This can lead to feelings of rejection, shame, or guilt, making mental health problems even worse.

Bibliography

[8] National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2017.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/data/statistics/statistics-report.html. Updated July 17, 2017. Accessed October 25, 2017.

Food and activity

What options could help a person lose weight?

Changing your eating habits is essential to lose weight and maintain a healthy weight. To lose weight, you need to eat fewer calories and use more calories than you consume. Doing that for an extended period of time can be challenging for many people. Emerging research shows that sticking to an eating plan may be more important to losing and maintaining a healthy weight than the type of eating plan a person follows.

Follow a healthy eating plan

All the foods and drinks a person chooses count. Eating healthy is a journey shaped by many factors, including age, weight, metabolism, food preferences, access to food, culture and traditions, whether you are male or female, and personal decisions made over time. A healthy eating plan includes:

  • a variety of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, such as brown rice, oatmeal, and whole wheat bread
  • low-fat or fat-free dairy products, such as milk, yogurt, and cheese, and similar products, such as soy beverages
  • a variety of protein foods, including seafood, low-fat meats and poultry, eggs, legumes (beans and peas), nuts, seeds, and soy products
  • oils, such as olive and canola oils, and those found in walnuts, olives, and avocados

A healthy eating plan also includes:

  • consume fewer foods and beverages that contain refined carbohydrates, added sugars, and salt (sodium)
  • control portion sizes
  • limiting foods with saturated fat and trans fat, such as those found in desserts and fried foods

For more information on a healthy eating plan and the right amounts of food and drink, visit ChooseMyPlate.gov .

A healthy eating plan includes a variety of healthy and nutritious foods.

Get regular physical activity

The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans  (PDF, 14.2 MB)define regular physical activity as at least 150 minutes a week of moderate intensity aerobic activity, such as brisk walking . Moderate-intensity aerobic activity makes the heart beat faster and breathing fast, but it does not exhaust or overheat the person. This kind of physical activity is safe for most people.

People with physical disabilities can also perform certain activities, such as aerobics or basketball from the wheelchair. Talk to your doctor about the types of physical activity that might work well with your specific abilities.

If a person has a health problem, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, or diabetes , they should check with their doctor before starting to be physically active on a regular basis. The doctor and the person can jointly review the types and amounts of physical activity that may suit their lifestyle, interests, and abilities.

Get tips to help you be active .

What must a person do to maintain a healthy weight?

Recent research has found that there are many reasons why it is difficult not to regain weight that has been lost. In addition to the slowdown in metabolism during weight loss, the body needs fewer calories at the new lower weight. Hormonal factors and other elements also tend to promote the regain of lost weight. People who have maintained long-term weight loss say they should carefully monitor their food intake and engage in vigorous physical activity. Some people who have achieved a healthy weight may find it difficult not to regain the lost weight.

Keep track of weight

A person should weigh himself regularly and keep track of his weight to ensure that he is maintaining the weight loss and not regaining the lost weight.

Stick to the healthy eating plan

The person should continue to choose healthy foods and make the healthy eating plan a lifelong habit. You should also find healthy food options that you prefer and enjoy, as that way you are more likely to stick with your meal plan.

Keep choosing healthy foods to maintain a healthy weight.

Continue to be physically active regularly

Regular physical activity can help a person not regain the weight they have lost. The person should try to do between 200 and 300 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity a week to avoid regaining the weight that has been lost. 9 Regular physical activity should become a lifelong habit.

Participate in a weight loss maintenance program

If a person was overweight or obese and lost weight, the doctor may recommend that they participate in a program to help them maintain the weight loss. The program can help the person stick to their healthy eating and regular physical activity plan, and also keep track of their progress.

Bibliography

[9] Jensen MD, Ryan DH, Apovian CM, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. Circulation. 2014;129(suppl 2):S102–S138.

Treatment

Common treatments for being overweight and obese include losing weight through healthy eating, more physical activity, and other changes to normal routines. Weight management programs can help some people lose weight or keep the weight off. Some people who are obese cannot lose enough weight to improve their health or cannot avoid regaining the lost weight. In such cases, a doctor may consider adding other treatments, including weight loss medications, weight loss devices, or bariatric surgery.

Experts recommend losing 5 to 10 percent of body weight in the first 6 months of treatment. 10 If a person weighs 200 pounds, this means losing just 10 pounds. Losing 5 to 10 percent of weight can:

  • help decrease the chance of developing health problems related to being overweight and obesity
  • improve health problems related to being overweight and obesity, such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels

Healthy eating plan and regular physical activity

Following a healthy eating plan with fewer calories is often the first step in treating overweight and obesity.

People who are overweight or obese should also start getting regular physical activity when they start their healthy eating plan. Being active can help you burn calories, and getting regular physical activity can help you maintain a healthy weight.

Learn more about healthy eating and physical activity to lose weight or maintain a healthy weight .

When combined with a healthy diet, regular physical activity helps you lose weight and maintain a healthy weight.

Change habits

Changing your eating habits, physical activity habits, and lifestyle is difficult, but with a plan, effort, consistent support, and patience, you can lose weight and improve your health. The following tips can help you think of ways to lose weight, engage in regular physical activity, and improve long-term health.

  • Be prepared for slips because they are normal . After a slip, such as overeating at a family or work gathering, try to collect yourself and focus on getting back to your healthy eating plan as soon as you can. Try to eat only when you are sitting in the dining room or kitchen. At work, avoid areas where there may be treats. Keep track of your progress using crawlers food or physical activity on the internet, as the planner of body weight (in English) (Body Weight Planner) that can help you keep track of the foods you eat, physical activity and His weight. These tools can help you keep going and stay motivated.
  • Set Goals . Having specific goals can help you stick to your scheduled plan. Instead of a general goal to “be more active,” set a specific goal, such as walking 15-30 minutes before work or at lunch on Monday and Friday. If you were unable to walk on Monday, return to the plan on Tuesday.
  • Seek support . Ask your family, friends, or healthcare professionals for help or encouragement. You can get support in person, by email or text, or by talking on the phone. You can also join a support group. Specially trained health professionals can help you change your lifestyle.

Weight management programs

Some people benefit from participating in a formal weight management program. In a weight management program, trained weight management specialists will create a detailed plan just for you and help you stick to the plan. Plans include a lower-calorie diet, increased physical activity, and ways to help you change your habits and stick to new ones. You can work with the specialists at the program site itself (i.e. face-to-face) in individual or group sessions. Specialists can contact you regularly by phone or internet to help you stick with your plan. Devices like smartphones, pedometers, and accelerometers can help you keep track of how well you are sticking to your plan.

Some people may also benefit from online weight management programs or commercial weight loss programs .

Medicines to lose weight

When healthy eating and physical activity habits are not enough, your doctor may prescribe medications to treat overweight and obesity .

A person should try to maintain their healthy eating plan and continue to be physically active while taking weight loss medications.

You may see advertisements for herbal remedies and dietary supplements that claim to help you lose weight. But many of these statements are not true. Some of these supplements can even have serious side effects. A doctor should be consulted before taking over-the-counter herbal remedies or dietary supplements in order to lose weight.

Weight loss devices

The doctor may consider the use of weight loss devices if a person has not been able to lose weight or to prevent them from regaining the weight they have lost with other treatments. Because weight loss devices have only recently been approved, researchers do not have long-term data on their safety and efficacy. Weight loss devices include:

  • The electrical stimulation system . The electrical stimulation system uses a device that a surgeon places in the abdomen through laparoscopic surgery. The device blocks nerve activity between the stomach and the brain.
  • The gastric balloon system . To use the gastric balloon system, a doctor places one or two balloons into the stomach through a tube that is placed in the mouth. Once the balloons are in the stomach, the surgeon fills them with salt water to take up more space in the stomach and help the person feel fuller.
  • The gastric emptying system . A gastric emptying system uses a pump to drain some of the food from the stomach after a meal. The device includes a tube that goes from the inside of the stomach to the outside of the abdomen. About 20 to 30 minutes after eating, the person uses the pump to drain food from the stomach through the tube and into the toilet.

Bariatric surgery

The bariatric surgery () includes various types of operations that help you lose weight through changes in the digestive tract . Bariatric surgery may be an option if a person is extremely obese and has not been able to lose enough weight to improve their health or does not want to regain the weight that was lost with other treatments. Bariatric surgery may also be an option for lower levels of obesity if a person has serious obesity-related health problems, such as type 2 diabetes or sleep apnea. Bariatric surgery can improve many of the medical conditions linked to obesity, especially type 2 diabetes.

Special diets

Low calorie diets

Your doctor may recommend a low-calorie diet, such as 1,200 to 1,500 calories per day for women and 1,500 to 1,800 calories per day for men. The number of calories depends on body weight and level of physical activity. A lower calorie diet that includes a variety of healthy foods will provide the nutrients a person needs to stay healthy.

Intermittent fasting

Intermittent fasting is another way to reduce your consumption of food that is receiving attention as a strategy to lose weight and gain health benefits. Fasting on alternate days is a type of intermittent fasting that consists of a “fast day” (from consuming zero calories to consuming a quarter of caloric needs) alternating with a “meal day”, that is, a feeding day no restrictions. Researchers have conducted only a few studies of intermittent fasting as a weight loss strategy, and therefore have no long-term data on the safety and effectiveness of intermittent fasting for maintaining a healthy weight in the long term.

Bibliography

[10] Jensen MD, Ryan DH, Apovian CM, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults. Circulation. 2014;129:S102–S138.

Clinical trials

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and other components of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct and support research on many diseases and conditions.

What are clinical trials on overweight and obesity?

Clinical trials are part of clinical research and the root of all medical advancements. Clinical trials look for new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Scientists are conducting research to learn more about being overweight and obese, including studies on the role of eating habits in the development and treatment of obesity, studies on novel methods that incorporate behavior, drugs, devices, and surgeries, and studies on other areas of research that can provide more information on why people develop obesity or respond to treatment. For example, scientists are conducting clinical trials to:

  • identify which patients may respond to a specific drug or type of diet
  • learn how bacteria in a person’s gastrointestinal tract can affect their risk of being overweight or obese
  • study how metabolism influences obesity and related health conditions
  • investigate how a mother’s weight gain during pregnancy can affect her later health and the health of her baby
  • learn how physical activity improves or maintains healthy weight and overall health

Researchers also use clinical trials to examine other aspects of health care, such as ways to improve the quality of life for people with chronic diseases. Find out if clinical trials are right for you .

What clinical trials on overweight and obesity are available?

Currently available and recruiting clinical trials funded by NIH or other government agencies focused on treating or managing overweight and obesity can be viewed at www.ClinicalTrials.gov . This is a selected list of clinical trials, but the list can be expanded or narrowed to find more clinical trials on overweight and obesity.

What has research taught us about being overweight and obesity?

The NIDDK has supported many research projects to learn more about being overweight and obese. Examples of these include:

  • Looking Ahead: Action for Health in a Diabetes Clinical Trial (Look AHEAD: Action for Health in Diabetes Trial). This study has shown that people with type 2 diabetes can lose weight and maintain that weight loss through a program of healthy eating and regular physical activity. The study has also shown that weight loss provides additional health benefits, such as improved physical mobility and quality of life. The clinical trial has been extended to study the long-term results of weight loss through healthy eating and physical activity programs in older adults with type 2 diabetes.
  • Longitudinal evaluation of bariatric surgery (English) (The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery) followed over 2,400 participants with extreme obesity underwent bariatric surgery (in English) in one of the participating centers. Participants were followed for up to 7 years. Overall, bariatric surgery was safe and had a positive impact on many obesity-related medical conditions, such as type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure, and the data shows good long-term maintenance of lost weight. However, some risks were identified, such as an increased risk of alcohol use disorders in participants who had gastric bypass surgery .

This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.Syndicated Content Details:
Source URL: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/informacion-de-la-salud/control-de-peso/informacion-sobre-sobrepeso-obesidad-adultos/ver-todo-contenido
Source Agency: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)